Thursday, August 1, 2019
Haya, which literally means shame, bashfulness, and refraining from saying or doing anything improper or indecent, to describe one who, out of fear and awe of God, seeks to avoid displeasing Him. It urges one to be more careful, self-possessed, and self-controlled, for such restraint, if originating in feelings of modesty, result in paying God the respect He deserves. Combining the instinctive feeling of shame with modesty based on Islam forms the greatest safeguard against shameful or indecent acts. Alone, each one may be diminished or utterly lost. The words haya (modesty or feeling of shame) and hayat (life) come from the same root. This signifies that modesty is a sign of a lively heart, and that a heartÃ¢â¬â¢s liveliness depends on its ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s belief and knowledge of God. If a heart is not fed continuously with belief and knowledge of God, it is almost impossible for it to remain lively and give rise to modesty. Narrated by Abu Huraira (ra): The Prophet said, Ã¢â¬Å"Faith (Belief) consists of more than sixty branches (i.e. parts). And Haya is a part of faith.Ã¢â¬ (Bukhari) The good HayÃ ¢Ã¢â¬â¢ is to be ashamed to commit a sin or a thing which Allah and His Messenger (saws) has forbidden, and bad HayÃ ¢Ã¢â¬â¢ is to feel ashamed to do a thing, which Allah and His Messenger (saws) ordered to do. DIFFERENT TYPES OF HAYA Ã¢ËÅ¾Firstly, to talk about the types of Good haya. For example, anyone who is a believer, he/she should build their personalities and their character with the good dimensions of haya. The most important is that he/she must be shy of doing ANYTHING displeasing to Allah (swt), with the belief that he/she will have to answer for all their deeds. If one develops a sense such as this one, it will help the believer to obey all of AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s command and to stay away from sins. Once the believer realises that Allah (swt) is watching us all the time and we will have to answer to every move we make in this dunya, he/she would not neglect any order from Allah or His Messenger (saws). So the stronger this sense of haya becomes, the more it motivates one to make sure that Allah (swt) doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t see him/her doing anything prohibited. The way to develop this haya is that one must keep learning and absorbing more knowledge and applying it to their lives. Ã¢ËÅ¾Another type of haya is more of a social aspect concerning others besides Allah (swt). Normally these things often come in regard with ones relationship with family. For instance, a child not wanting to do something displeasing to his mother, or a wife not wanting to do something displeasing to her husband or even a student who is careful about saying something incorrect in front of his teacher.. Ã¢ËÅ¾Last but not least is the type of haya in which the believers become shy of themselves. This is when they have reached the peek of their Iman. What this means is that if they do, or say, or see, anything wrong or even commit the tiniest sin, they start to feel extremely bad and embarrassed or they feel extreme guilt in their heart. This builds a high degree of self-consciousness and that is what strengthens the believerÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to Allah (swt) People will go out an get degrees in law schools, or science, or engineering and they will put four to six years of their lives studying for this stuff that will only benefit them in this world. In this society people including Muslims, choose their careers according to how much money they will make and what status they will have in this society as to being a lawyer or a doctor etc. They do not realize that in Islam the BEST stature of a Muslim is that of a Ã¢â¬Å"daiÃ¢â¬â¢iÃ¢â¬ or a teacher of Islam. Another proof of bad haya is that which is extremely popular amongst many sisters in this western society. One of the most important aspects of haya, for women, is that of guarding their chastity and their modesty. . They are shy of the opposite gender in this society because of what they might experience if strange men look at them and lastly they have haya because they are ashamed of going out in public and committing this grave sin of displaying their beauty is public. There are many women in this society who claim that they have haya but to follow the order of hijab is backwards and that women in this society shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to cover is obviously disbelief. There are many verses in the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and many ahadith explaining the reasons behind observing Hijab. The Islamic Shariah has not stopped at giving the Commandments of Hijab, it has also clarified every such thing which directly relates to these commandments and, with the slightest carelessness, may result in vulgarity and immodesty. This is why modesty has been called the ornament of a woman, which protects her from many sins and which prevents ill-intentioned men from daring to have bad thoughts about her. This haya has been made a part of her nature to safeguard her from being abused by immoral men. Narrated Aisha (ra): Ã¢â¬Å"I used to enter my house where AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s Messenger (peace be upon him) was and take off my garment, saying that only my husband and my father were there; but when Umar was buried along with them, I swear by Allah that I did not enter it without having my clothes wrapped round me owing to modesty regarding Umar.Ã¢â¬ (at-Tirmidhi and Ahmed) In conclusion we must understand that Haya is important for both men and women. Men are to control themselves by getting married as young as possible or if they cannot afford that, they should fast. Women are told to conceal themselves so that the men will not be over taken by the whispers of Sheytan and will not disrespect or take advantage of the women. There are many verses in the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an that have clearly explained how we have to behave and Allah is All-Knowing therefore He knew that we would face these problems living in this society, and that is no excuse to change Islam and only practice what we feel is right. Allah (swt) has told men how to guide their modesty and has told women how to guide their modesty. If either one of them refuse to follow the commandment of their Lord, may Allah have mercy on them and may He guide them to the straight path. Ã¢â¬Å"Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: and Allah is well acquainted with all that they do. And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beautyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ (QurÃ¢â¬â¢an Nur, 30-31) ALL PRAISE BE TO ALLAH, AND MAY HIS PEACE AND BLESSINGS BE UPON MUHAMMAD (SAW), HIS FAMILY, HIS COMPANIONS AND HIS TRUE FOLLOWERS UNTIL THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT.
Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Often, man resorts to story-telling as a way of reconciling with a formidable incident in the past. By re-telling the story to another party, he comes to accept that this is a reality to be faced. He realizes that acceptance, rather than denial, is the best way of going about this trouble. Aside from the rehabilitating ability of story-telling with its contributory effect in dealing with a painful memory, others simply do this as a way of remembering. Concretizing the past as a piece of literature would ensure that the incident would not just be buried in the recesses of the memory; that it would be kept alive and the pains and suffering would not be without significance. In this light, it would come clear for readers how and why the proliferation and the presence of slave narratives came about. One may think that with the end of the painful era of slavery, all dialogues and discussion about the subject would also desist. For the African-American slaves and their descendants, this was not the case. The words of Robert Crossley of the University of Massachusetts rerated the thought: Ã¢â¬Å"First-person American slave narratives should have ceased being written when the last American citizen born into institutionalized slavery died. But the literary form has persisted, just as the legacy of slavery has persisted, into the present. Ã¢â¬ To be more specific, the birth and popularization of the slave narratives started in the nineteenth century. James Olney stated that each narrative Ã¢â¬Å"a unique productionÃ¢â¬ as an autobiography, and Ã¢â¬Å"is not every autobiography the unique tale, uniquely told, of a unique life? Therefore, the uniqueness of each narrative from the others is a trait of this genre, as it narrates the experiences of the writers which are unique to anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s. However, certain characteristics are evidently similar in the work to be considered a part of the genre. For one thing, it has to tell the story of a black slaveÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle for literacy and freedom, while testifying against the Ã¢â¬Å"peculiar institution/Ã¢â¬â¢ which in practice meant human bondage and humiliation (Gates, Ã¢â¬Å"IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ix). By the second half of the twentieth century, a sub-genre of the slave narrative has arisen; called the Ã¢â¬Å"neo-slave narrative,Ã¢â¬ it is a fictional mutation of the slave narratives of nineteenth-century Americans (Crossley). This sub-set of the slave narrative genre is very similar with its umbrella genre in the sense that it presents personal accounts of slavery. However, the difference lies in the choice of the author to fictionalize existing accounts, and not his own personal experiences. The authors base the structure of their fictional work on the oral histories and existing slave narratives to make sure that the story would still echo true events in the historical sense. The birth of this sub-set of the slave narrative genre may be attributed to the void that it fills, or attempts to fill. Anita Wholuba in her paper said that the chasm which is attempted to be explored and filled is the ironic presence of silence in slave narratives, despite of the voice earned by the slave narrative writers. Wholuba said that Ã¢â¬Å"while a significant number of scholars have established that certain silences exist in the traditional narrative of history, neo-slave narrative authors have committed themselves to the task of identifying and sounding those silences where the representation of the American slavery era is concerned. Ã¢â¬ A novel titled Kindred, penned by Octavia Butler, is among the body of neo-slave narratives published in the last century. It was published in the year 1979, and speaks of an African-American womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sojourns to the past. The character Dana, lives in contemporary California, but is transported back in time to the antebellum South. In her involuntary travels to the past, she understands how difficult the situation for people before her ancestors actually was. As I was reading Kindred, I had the initial impression that it was just to be appreciated for its science fiction values. Although the science element in this novel was not so much as it was felt in other novels from the same genre, her meshing of science fiction and history was an innovation that should be noted and lauded. In any case, what caught my attention more was the similarity Kindred has with other novels we have read subsequently in the class, which were the Narrative of the Life of Frederic Douglass, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and Up from Slavery. Evidently, there were characteristics of a slave narrative in the novel Kindred. However, the text didnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet the five criteria for it to be called a slave narrative, the genre which the other works fell under. As Kindred is a work of fiction, it would naturally be categorized as a neo slave narrative, a concept I came to be familiar with after research. Kindred as a neo-slave narrative With the plot and simple and direct language employed by Butler, Kindred could not be missed as a neo-slave narrative. Characters that are actual African-American slaves and Caucasian American masters and violence inflicted on slaves are presented in the novel. On a deeper sense, on the other hand, the novel follows the same pattern present in other slave narratives. Wholuba in the same paper added that although the text refers to other slave narratives such as the work written by DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢, in an effort to explore existing themes, the novel still manages to introduce new themes. The new themes that this novel presented, according to Wholuba still, include a more blunt Ã¢â¬Å"analysis and depiction of the slaveÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle for sexual autonomy, the experience of middle passage, and the concept of memory. Ã¢â¬ As was mentioned, the novel Kindred follows the typical pattern for a slave narrative, and this will be the thesis of the paper. It will attempt to discuss and prove the characteristics of a slave narrative present in ButlerÃ¢â¬â¢s popular piece of art. Another writer mentioned some of the other patterns commonly found in neo-slave narratives. Lysik mentioned in her essay that neo-slave narratives portrayed the Ã¢â¬Å"vital slave cultureÃ¢â¬ in a positive light as it could serve as a means of surviving the brutal reality they are subjected to (Lysik). What this implicates is that the writers of the neo-slave narratives provide a new perspective in terms of viewing the arduous tasks and obligations slaves have to fulfill. Most authors show how slaves then turn this otherwise appalling condition to something that they could actually seek refuge in. First and foremost, the novel carried a prefatory statement by a person from Caucasian American race attesting to the authenticity of the author. The second criterion which has to be satisfied is the movement from slavery to freedom. Kindred has been classified under slave narratives by critics as leans toward the freedom narrative category. This concept will be further discussed in the following paragraphs. Aside from this, the most obvious criterion which the novel has to satisfy is that the story should portray the physical, emotional, and spiritual deprivation of slavery. Kindred, undeniably, does not fall short on this end. As the journey through time and space allows Dana to witness the events during the period of slavery firsthand, the novel is rich with narration regarding the struggles of the African-American slaves. Through DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences, the tales of the different forms of deprivation and coercion were regaled to the readers. James and his contemporaries talked of this in a paper, saying that many forms of violence and intimidation were observed to be used to maintain white dominance in the slave economy through the eyes of the character of Dana. These Ã¢â¬Å"preservationÃ¢â¬ measures, so to speak, included the sexual violence against black women that was common during slavery, the assault on black families, the difficult choices that black people were compelled to make in acts of love, survival, and resistance, and the outcomes of internalized oppression (James, et. al). A specific scene in the novel would be that time when Dana personally witnessed the beating of a slave. The slave was hunted by white patrollers because of a crime that would seem absurd for people of the modern times: the slave was found spending time with his wife in their own bedroom without the slave masterÃ¢â¬â¢s permission. The following text is lifted from the novel: I could literally smell his sweat, hear every ragged breath, every cry, every cut of the whip. I could see his body jerking, convulsing, straining against the rope as his screaming went on and on. My stomach heaved, and I had to force myself to stay where I was and keep quiet. Why didnÃ¢â¬â¢t they stop! Ã¢â¬Å"Please, Master,Ã¢â¬ the man begged. Ã¢â¬Å"For Godsake, Master, please Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I shut my eyes and tensed my muscles against an urge to vomit. I had seen people beaten on television and in the movies. I had seen the tored blood substitute streaked across their backs and heard their well-rehearsed screams. But I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t lain nearby and smelled their sweat or heard them pleading and praying, shamed before their families and themselves. I was probably less prepared for the reality than the child crying not far from me. (p. 36) What made the scene worse than it was already is the fact that the daughter of the slave was also witnessing what was happening. She was situated a few yards away from Dana, but as the character said, Ã¢â¬Å"I was probably less prepared for the reality than the child crying not far from me,Ã¢â¬ we can surmise that the child could better deal with the situation than Dana for this was not a phenomenon for her any longer. It had become part of her reality that it is possible for her father to be punished for doing something, however trivial it may be, which is against their masterÃ¢â¬â¢s will. The horror of the situation in antebellum South of America then was clearly depicted in this specific scene. DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to what she witnessed represents the reactions of her fellow African-Americans and of people from different nations who oppose such inhumane violent inflictions. As Butler effectively mixed fiction and narrative in this novel, the outcome of the story-telling was as much effective as it was sincere. Another trait that must be found in the text is the element of a triggering event that pushes the slave to escape to be considered a neo-slave narrative. For this particular novel, there were many instances which depicted this. The many times when the protagonist Dana feels the need to escape can be included here. However, what would be the more fitting example here is Alice, the woman who was going to give birth to DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestor. Being a slave who was forced to bear and mother a ruthless masterÃ¢â¬â¢s children, she was a character who was forced to the point of brokenness of the spirit. At some point, readers will also see her desperation because of the situation. There was a time, however when Alice was determined to run away with her husband, Isaac. What triggered this was the series of beatings she had to go through and the physical assault made by Rufus on her, Ã¢â¬Å"when Rufus who has torn AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s dress and raped her,Ã¢â¬ (Butler, 117). Isaac beat their master to death because of this event, but because of DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s pleas, decided to stop and run away with Alice. However, their escape was to no avail. They were eventually recaptured, which led to more unacceptable punishment for them from the patrollers. IsaacÃ¢â¬â¢s ears were cut off and he was sold to another family. Alice on the other hand, had to survive attacks by hunting dogs. While the desire for escape was a theme discussed many times in the text, it must also be noted that success did not always come with it. Isaac and Alice were not the only characters who had to endure unsuccessful escapes. Two other women characters in the novel were recaptured and were subjected to more physical abuse when they attempted to leave. According to Wholuba, these failed attempts are important as they reveal to readers how the slaves had to find other ways to resist or survive, when liberation is impossible for them to attain. Despite of this, there was one character who was able to manage a successful escape. Though she had lost her arm in the process of going back to the real world she belonged in, she was able to acquire freedom from Rufus nonetheless. As another trait of slave narratives is that there is a situation which depicts liberation, or escaping to freedom, which is often followed by a renaming. In DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s case, changing her name did not transpire after the escape. The shift that took place in this context was the shift in her attitudes and understanding. Her character can be actually accused of being too oblivious to the events in her peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s past, which can only be a good thing to an extent. She is married to Kevin, a white American, who may also be guilty of the same thing. The blissful marriage between the two despite their racial differences should not be the main point of discussion; whereas, it should be set on the seemingly it-happened-so-long-ago-it-should-not-affect-us-anymore attitude of the interracial couple. However, after her numerous trips back to antebellum Maryland, she was forced to open her eyes and mind to what her ancestors had to go through. The situations had forced her to remember, to understand from the viewpoint of a slave who endured the slavery period. With this, she was able to connect what used to be different for her: her current life as a modern woman engaged in an interracial relationship, and the history and experiences of her ancestors. Looking at it, the couple Dana and Kevin may be representing the African-Americans in the modern times, who do not look back anymore at what happened in the past. This novel then, may serve as a reminder for them that the past should not be forgotten, but rather should be immortalized for the lessons that have been begotten from it. Impact of the novel Clearly, Butler was able to evoke positive reactions and was actually able to initiate change on the part of her readers. The most palpable change that she was able to make is to remind her fellow African-American readers of their past and have a change of heart and attitude toward their past. Crossley also observed this change that Butler facilitated with this novel. According to him, Butler Ã¢â¬Å"has deployed the genreÃ¢â¬â¢s conventions to tell stories with a political and sociological edge to them, stories that speak to issues, feelings, and historical truths arising out of African-American experience. Ã¢â¬ As I have mentioned in the preceding paragraph, she makes the readers understand that the past should not be forgotten because of the pains that it may rekindle. The novel reinforces that remembering the past would not the allow struggles of their ancestors to be left to disintegrate in vain. The purpose that their sufferings serve would be kept alive, and that is to comprehend the mistakes of the past to prevent any similar event to happen again. Another interesting point that Crossley raised in his essay was that Butler, through the novel Kindred, was able to reveal the connection between history and the current diseases of the society. She boldly exposed different forms of chauvinism and explained how these are Ã¢â¬Å"enriched by a historical consciousness that shapes the depiction of enslavement both in the real past and in imaginary pasts and futures, and enact struggles for personal freedom and cultural pluralism,Ã¢â¬ (Crossle). In conclusion, Kindred is a novel that goes beyond satisfying the extrinsic values of a science fiction novel. The words expressed by James and his fellow authors can best summarize what the novel does to a reader: Ã¢â¬Å"Readers can recognize many parallels in our own search for truth about this painful history, and we are moved to consider: how powerfully and inextricably we are bound to the lives of our ancestors; how racism, denial, myth-making, and racial stereotypes have influenced our understanding of our cultural heritage; how the past shapes our present reality; how revisiting a painful past can lead toward healing; and how we can best use our historical memory to move forward (James, et. al)Ã¢â¬ . Summary: Neo-slave narratives, which is a sub-genre of the slave narrative, proliferated by the second half of the twentieth century. The neo-slave narrative genre is very similar with its umbrella genre, which is the slave narrative, in the sense that it presents personal accounts of slavery. However, the difference lies in the choice of the author to fictionalize existing accounts, and not his own personal experiences. The authors base the structure of their fictional work on the oral histories and existing slave narratives to make sure that the story would still echo true events in the historical sense. A novel titled Kindred, penned by Octavia Butler, is among the body of neo-slave narratives published in the last century. It was published in the year 1979, and speaks of an African-American womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sojourns to the past. Evidently, there were characteristics of a slave narrative in the novel Kindred. However, the text didnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet the five criteria for it to be called a slave narrative, the genre which the other works fell under. As Kindred is a work of fiction, it would naturally be categorized as a neo slave narrative, a concept I came to be familiar with after research. With the plot and simple and direct language employed by Butler, Kindred could not be missed as a neo-slave narrative. Characters that are actual African-American slaves and Caucasian American masters and violence inflicted on slaves are presented in the novel. On a deeper sense, on the other hand, the novel follows the same pattern present in other slave narratives. As was mentioned, the novel Kindred follows the typical pattern for a slave narrative, and this will be the thesis of the paper. It will attempt to discuss and prove the characteristics of a slave narrative present in ButlerÃ¢â¬â¢s popular piece of art. First and foremost, the novel carried a prefatory statement by a person from Caucasian American race attesting to the authenticity of the author. The second criterion which has to be satisfied is the movement from slavery to freedom. Kindred has been classified under slave narratives by critics as leans toward the freedom narrative category. Aside from this, the most obvious criterion which the novel has to satisfy is that the story should portray the physical, emotional, and spiritual deprivation of slavery. Kindred, undeniably, does not fall short on this end. As the journey through time and space allows Dana to witness the events during the period of slavery firsthand, the novel is rich with narration regarding the struggles of the African-American slaves. Through DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences, the tales of the different forms of deprivation and coercion were regaled to the readers. Another trait that must be found in the text is the element of a triggering event that pushes the slave to escape to be considered a neo-slave narrative. For this particular novel, there were many instances which depicted this. The many times when the protagonist Dana feels the need to escape can be included here. Aside from this, another trait of slave narratives is that there is a situation which depicts liberation, or escaping to freedom, which is often followed by a renaming, was also present in the novel. In DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s case, changing her name did not transpire after the escape. The shift that took place in this context was the shift in her attitudes and understanding. In conclusion, Kindred is a novel that goes beyond satisfying the extrinsic values of a science fiction novel. More importantly, Butler was able to evoke positive reactions and was actually able to initiate change on the part of her readers. The most palpable change that she was able to make is to remind her fellow African-American readers of their past and have a change of heart and attitude toward their past.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
In this supporting paper to the presentation, the purpose, the nature and the advantages and disadvantages of NVQ will be stated and analysed; finishing with a conclusion as to whether to follow a NVQ or not. The definition of an NVQ is Ã¢â¬Å"A statement of competence clearly relevant to work and intended to facilitate entry into, or progression in, employment and further learning, issued to an individual by a recognized awarding bodyÃ¢â¬ . A national vocational qualification (NVQ) is a collection of vocational qualifications (previously unstructured), which have been integrated into a single assessment standard. This has been done in order to have a nationally recognised level of academic achievement which enables employees to have a clearer level of each job applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s respective competency. Competency can be defined as:- Ã¢â¬ËAn underlying characteristic of a person which results in effective and/or superior performance in a jobÃ¢â¬â¢ (Boyatis 1982, p21) Due to the heavy promotion by the Learning Skills Councils, (LSCÃ¢â¬â¢s) and the Department for Education and Employment; the majority of vocational qualifications are either part of the NVQ scheme, and in the rare occasion that it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, most commonly when the qualification is of different nature of those offered by the NVQ syllabus, the qualification will have its equivalence identified to its respective, specific, level of the NVQ system in order for those nationwide (familiar with the NVQs) can have more clarity as to where such candidates stand on the level of competency. NVQs have been developed to suit all occupational areas, with each occupational area there are eight levels with the NVQ system to complete to attain Ã¢â¬Ëfull competencyÃ¢â¬â¢. This is structured in such a way that level one is the most basic and level eight, the most advanced level of NVQ. The ideal situation of training for competence is done by the manifestation of the development of candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to perform the specific tasks which coincide directly with the nature of the job in its respective department, in terms of performance results (grading), with specific indicators. NVQs have originally been developed with the purpose to serve as a reaction to the Ã¢â¬Ëconfetti-scatteringÃ¢â¬â¢ style of training which is sometimes carried out by some establishments e.g. a company which sends their staff on off-the-job training with just the objective to learn one particular skill. This training style results in the candidates becoming one-dimensional, due toÃ having a limited knowledge of skills. NVQs have, in fact been developed in order to give these candidates a more rounded knowledge, thus enabling them to be more versatile, efficient in their respective job positions. The design of NVQ has been structured in such a way that in each of the eight levels, there are mandatory and optional roles (or modules); these are comprised of a collection of several units, those of which are to be completed to be able to progress onto the succeeding level. The table beneath can be used in aid to understand the structural layout of each level in NVQ. There are several advantageous principles adopted by the NVQ system. These include:- 1.The NVQ qualifications are open access in the sense that no prior professional attainment or experience, nor qualifications are required, each candidate will be categorised level (1-8) after a means of analysis (be it a test or a review of current skills/ experience currently obtained). 2.The focus-based learning format of the NVQs. Progression from one level to next is based on when the criteria to advance has been met, this can be as quick or long as the individual will take to learn, opposed to other assessment standards where the timescale restricts the learner to learn in its set time. An example of this is that it is impossible to complete a MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree quicker than in a year. 3.Flexibility is a key aspect of NVQs, as they are not generally attendance based Ã¢â¬â in conjunction with the focus based learning aspect of the qualification where the learner can take as long/short as they want. This also enables candidates to continue with their respective business demands of their external employment, in conjunction with following NVQs. 4.School Integration is available to the NVQs (GNVQs), this enables candidates to have early access to the hands on approach, which runs alongside other assessment standards (e.g. An alternative run in the same centres as A Ã¢â¬âlevels etc.), thus showing equivalence in value and progression routes, thus giving more viable options to the candidates). 5.Portfolio based work proves to prospective employees that a track record is available showing day to day skills being learnt, thus proving the levels of understanding and competence of each candidate. 6.Prior Accreditation being put into consideration as to which level they will be categorised, enables the candidate to use theirÃ qualifications/experience regardless of where from, as long as relevant (i.e. A-levels, training at work etc., enabling an individual to start in a more advance d level). NVQs also have a few disadvantageous aspects when following their assessment standards, these include. 1.Labour intensive nature of assessment there is a lot of practical work undergone in the NVQs 2.More focus in gaining evidence than actual learning, lack of cognitive learning amongst candidates. As most of the proof (to validate competency level) is done via the production of a portfolio and the presenting of a track-record , this can easily turn into a Ã¢â¬Ëpaper-chaseÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than the actual focus on the learning processes of the qualification. The also, Ã¢â¬Ëgoing through the motionÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of the NVQ can also enable the candidate to not be able to reason, simply performing tasks without having true understanding. 3.Quality of assessment can, due to the large numbers of assessors, have a large variance as the marking of each individual can differ. Especially with the different interpretations of some of the jargon developed by the NVQs assessment grading schem es 4.Partial Competence due to selection of optional modules/ reduced definitions and details, as each candidate can choose their modules in the option roles category and each module having different aspects and natures, the candidate may be subject to effectively not gaining an entire knowledge in their respective occupational fields. An example of this would be (referring to table above) where each module has a code which labels the nature of the unit. Take Ã¢â¬ËC5Ã¢â¬â¢, With C symbolising say, Ã¢â¬ËManaging Self and Personal SkillsÃ¢â¬â¢, one opting out of such a unit, could prove to give them less than the complete set of skills an NVQ could offer, thus lowering competence. To conclude, NVQs are a system devised by the government to help those in various situations, both academically and professionally in order to make them more competent in their respective field in a nationally recognised manner to potential employers. There are a range of advantages and disadvantages to the candidates as well as the employers, such as not having to follow a timescale in learning and also in not receiving a full knowledge due to optional module selection, but as to whether one should be followedÃ or not, according to the studies that have been carried, out should go hand in hand in the individuals situation.. For instance, one that is currently employed may not be able to dedicate a lot of time to their qualification course, would suit an NVQ whereas, an individual wishing to say, be a medical doctor, a career where having extensive knowledge of their occupational area is vital, would not suit following an NVQ course, where modules are optional and perhaps having re duced knowledge. Bibliography 1.Armstrong,M(2012)ArmstrongÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook Of Human Resource Management Practice, 11th edition, Philadelphia: Kogan Page Limited. 2.Hall,L. Taylor,S. Torrington, D. (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"Human Resource ManagementÃ¢â¬ , 7th Edition. Pp. 399-407 3.Blosi,W.(2007)An Introduction To Human Resource Management, London: McGraw-Hill Education 4.Marchington,M. Wilkinson, A. (2005) Human Resource Management At Work People and development, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 5.Lundy,O. Cowling, AG, (1996)Strategic Human Resource Management, London: Routledge
Monday, July 29, 2019
Limitations on Freedom during the Cold War - Essay Example It also explores the reactions of Americans in each era. The main similarities between the Cold War and the Red Scare are that they were both based on Ã¢â¬Å"fearsÃ¢â¬ against the Ã¢â¬Å"leftistÃ¢â¬ other and they also led to reckless accusations and curtailment of freedoms of association and speech. The fear of communism both stimulated the Cold War and the Red Scare. It was during the Red Scare that the federal government exercised its full power against the labor and political left-wing parties. During the Red Scare, a national anti-radical hysteria ensued, because there were fears for a Bolshevik revolution in America. This Bolshevik revolution threatened to reshape the American way of life and basic social institutions, such as home and family. From 1916 to 917, the Industrial Workers conducted several strikes, which the media portrayed as leftist and anti-democratic. The government systematically arrested and detained people who were suspected as spies and among those aff ected were labor organizations, anti-war activists, members of different communist organizations, journalists and writers, African American activists, and other groups that fought for just wages, better benefits, and child labor laws. On January 2, 1920 alone, 10,000 people were arrested without warrants. The Congress, however, could not tolerate such wide-scale abuses of constitutional rights and by 1922, the Red Scare ended.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Week 2 - IT STRATEGY - Essay Example Therefore, by determining both the short and long term impact of the project to the organization through evaluation, the governance body finds stable grounds to prioritize an IT project (Dye & Pennypacker, 1999). Secondly, IT projects can be prioritized, by the governance body, through analysis of the value of the business to all the stakeholders (both external and internal). This analysis need to define the business value in terms of cost, quality, efficiency and flexibility. All these factors are crucial as they allow the governance body to identify or rather find the priorities of different stakeholders. Involving the key stakeholders is as important as the business itself because they need to have an understanding of the projectsÃ¢â¬â¢ nature and how they will impact on the entire business. This levels the playing field for all stakeholders and cuts across the culture and political aspects in the organization. Therefore, an IT project can be given priority according to the preferences or priorities of the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ stakeholders (Rad & Levin,
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Yours - Essay Example One must know that there are some people holding opinion that handling the most dangerous creature on the planet, i.e., beautiful women is an art in itself and this is an issue which really comes across during the time of the first date. A man tries his best to have the best possible clothes on his body as well as carry a decent hair do, one which will surely be liked by his date, or the first date if we may say. I believe women are very sensitive when the talk is of choosing their date partners. Even the slightest of details are seen with a vigilant eye (by the girl). Thus I believe an American man is constantly under pressure to show own self in his best possible dressing as well as exhibit his manners to the extreme. I hold very diverse ways about this subject and quite rightly so. I opine that some American men love to save the mementos that they receive from their dates and openly show them to their friends, one and all, thus bringing into notice the achievements they have had. It is a totally different story if there is no memento for the person; hence nothing to actually share or brag about within friends and relatives on the manÃ¢â¬â¢s part who had his first date. For many American males like me, their first dates turn out to be real horrendous, thus bringing with them pain, frustration and shattered dreams, which they had built of their ideal girl during their leisure time. Everyone like me does so and it surely is agony for us poor souls who see their dates either being fat, chubby or somewhat physically impaired. There might be some other physical and mental disabilities, notwithstanding while preferences on the manÃ¢â¬â¢s part are endless too. However I think that dating can be sometimes degrading depending upon the girl with whom the date is being set with as well as the unexpected and uncontrollable surroundings and
Job Description - Essay Example The main duties in this job include assessing and treating injured sportsmen; staying up-to-date with the latest research in this practice; and educating and advising athletes on prevention strategies (The Sport Science Resource para1). This job also includes duties such as assisting with basic knowledge in strapping, massage, and response to severe sports injuries to individual athletes and sports teams. It involves working for a wide range of individuals and organizations, such as professional sports teams, basketball players, tennis players, golfers, and college/schools athletics programs among others. This job is attractive in a number of ways, particularly the salary. It is one of the highest paid jobs in the country. The earnings of a sports medicine doctor much depends on the athletic program of the employer. It is estimated that a median salary of a sports medicine doctor is between $172,000 and $397,000 per year (American College of Sports Medicine 4). Apart from attracting impressive salary, Sports Medicine is a job whose vacation has few comparisons. These earnings are often accompanied by other benefits such as insurances, disability plans, retirement benefits, and bonuses. Considering the hard work involved and high earnings in sports, it is likely that professional athletes and sports teams go for expensive vacations in high-end destinations. While in this vacation, they usually go together with their sports medicine doctors. Also, training can take them to different destinations which may double up as vacation. Often, the employers, who can be individuals or sports tea ms, cater for the travel expenses. Besides, the field of sports medicine offers its professionals a great opportunity for advancements (The Sport Science Resource para2). As a sports medicine doctor gains more experience and training, he or she is likely to advance further in terms of career and earnings. Like most professions, it has